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Wed, 11 Jan 2012
Where should usage messages go?
Countervailing against this, though, is the usual argument for stderr: if you had run the command in a pipeline, and it wrote its error output to stdout instead of to stderr, then the error message would have gotten lost, and would possibly have caused havoc further down the pipeline. I considered this argument to be the controlling one, but I ran a quick and informal survey to see if I was in the minority.
After 15 people had answered the survey, Ron Echeverri pointed out that although it makes sense for the usage message to go to stderr when the command is used erroneously, it also makes sense for it to go to stdout if the message is specifically requested, say by the addition of a --help flag, since in that case the message is not erroneous. So I added a second question to the survey to ask about where the message should go in such a case.
83 people answered the first question, "When a command is misused, should it deliver its usage message to standard output or to standard error?". 62 (75%) agreed that the message should go to stderr; 11 (13%) said it should go to stdout. 10 indicated that they preferred a more complicated policy, of which 4 were essentially (or exactly) what M. Echeverri suggested; this brings the total in favor of stderr to 66 (80%). The others were:
68 people answered the second question, "Where should the command send the output when the user specifically requests usage information?". (15 people took the survey before I added this question.) 50 (74%) said the output should go to stdout, 12 (18%) to the user's default pager and then to stdout, and 5 (7%) to stderr. One person (The same as #5 above) said "it depends".
Thanks to everyone who participated.